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No. 102 - Mobile dynamics: the path to 5G

DigiWorld Economic Journal - C&S - 15/06/2016 No. 102 - Mobile dynamics: the path to 5G

No. 102 - 2nd quarter 2016

This special issue is devoted to the prospect of 5G, with articles and interviews on what distinguishes the future standard from its predecessors, and why the stakes are so high. But this issue is also an opportunity to reflect on the mobile ecosystem’s extraordinary transformation since the early days of cellular calling, well before it became an integral part of the mobile Internet.

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Mobile dynamics: the path to 5G

Edited by Anders HENTEN, Denis LESCOP & Frédéric PUJOL

by Yves GASSOT, Director of Publication

by the Editors


The Apple Twist

The Radio Spectrum Ladder of Investment to Promote Innovation
and Competition in Mobile Markets
Laurent BENZONI & Pascal DUTRU

5G – Boundary Object or Battlefield?


Wassim CHOURBAJI, Qualcomm
Conducted by Denis LESCOP

Martin FRANSMAN, University of Edinburgh
Conducted by Anders HENTEN

Philippe LUCAS, Orange
Conducted by Frédéric PUJOL


Regulation and Competition
Mobile Telecommunications Ecosystem Evolutions with 5G
Frédéric PUJOL, Salah Eddine ELAYOUBI, Jan MARKENDAHL &

Technical Innovations
5G Full Steam Ahead
Frédéric PUJOL
Key Outcomes from WRC-15

Public Policies
Roaming Like at Home: Retail Roaming at Domestic Price
Does not Require New Wholesale Regulation

Author biographies

Service Section

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Cambridge, UK, 7-9 September 2016

DigiWorld Summit 2016 - The Digital Trust Economy
Montpellier, France, 15-17 November 2016

Call for papers

Guide for authors

Our Dossiers

Mobile dynamics: the path to 5G

The Apple Twist
Keywords: mobile industry dynamics, 3G, platform, market failure, market creation.

The mobile industries went through many (r)evolutions that increased their performance, triggered new usages and contributed to the vast popularity of mobile handsets. Some evolutions were pushed by the regulators, some were technological, some were marketing-related and others were business model-related. Our paper proposes an analysis of the latter through the spectacular example of the entry of Apple in the mobile industry in 2007. We show how Apple's business model disrupted the whole architecture and design of the mobile industry and stimulated the rise of a new cycle of innovations.

The Radio Spectrum Ladder of Investment to Promote Innovation
and Competition in Mobile Markets

Laurent BENZONI & Pascal DUTRU
Keywords: Regulation, tight oligopolies, mobile market, MVNO, radio license assignment, infrastructure competition, service competition.

How can innovation and competition be sustained in closed tight oligopolistic market structures? This question will be crucial in the next years for an appropriate regulation of mobile markets. The regulatory framework era of the postulate of infrastructure based competition seems behind us. It is time now to re-open the regulatory tool box to renew a service based competition approach with good incentives for all players: the incumbents with their own mobile infrastructure and potential entrants with innovative propositions for services in the emergent era of Internet of Things. This paper proposes to revisit the concept of the "ladder of investment" and to apply this approach to the mobile specific context where operators need an access to frequencies to maintain and develop their businesses. Our radio spectrum ladder of investment is structured by six rungs. Each of them supposes an appropriate technical and pricing access to the operators' networks infrastructure. Opening access to the mobile networks will be sensitive. A general scheme based on incentives for the network operators rather than on obligations and constraints is certainly more appropriate. Proposals are suggested in this article to pursue this objective.

5G – Boundary Object or Battlefield?
Keywords: Standardization, 5G, boundary objects, standards wars

The aim of the paper is to better understand of the processes of standardization relating to 5G. This includes an understanding of how 5G can be conceptualized. It also includes knowledge on where the processes of standardization take place. The paper introduces two different analytical approaches to the analysis of telecom standardization processes: boundary objects and standards wars. The boundary objects approach, new in the field of analyses of telecom standardization processes, focuses on the fact that cooperation between various stakeholders can take place without full consensus on the directions and perspectives of the cooperative work. The standards wars approach puts emphasis on the conflictual relationships between different "camps" regarding the promotion of standards and products or systems. Concerning the upstarting processes of standardization of 5G, it seems that 5G standardization resembles a boundary object more than standards war. However, in order to better understand standardization processes, we propose a combination of, or the use of, both of the two frameworks. The boundary objects framework will contribute with an understanding of the non-conflictual aspects of the standardization processes, while theories that are part of the concept of standards wars will be applicable for conceptualizing the more confrontational aspects.

The guest Editors

Anders HENTEN is Professor at center for Communication, Media and Information technologies (CMI) at the Department of Electronic Systems at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. He is a graduate in communications and international development studies from Roskilde University in Denmark (1989) and holds a Ph.D. from the Technical University of Denmark (1995). He has worked professionally in the area of communications economy and policy for more than 25 years. He has participated in numerous research projects financed e.g. by the European Community, the Nordic Council of Ministers, Danish Research Councils and Ministries, and in consultancies, financed by World Bank, UNCTAD, ITU, Danish Ministries, etc. He has published nationally and internationally – more than 250 academic publications in international journals, books, conference proceedings, etc.

Denis LESCOP is a Visiting Professor at Pamplin College of Business (Virginia Tech) and the Academic Director of Telecom Business School campus in the USA (Institut Mines-Telecom). His research is focused on new forms of competition (open innovation, platforms) as well as creation of efficient methods to identify and analyze it intended to be used by managers and public policies. His focus is mainly on the digital and network industries. His current research object is the phenomenon of "platformatization" of markets and its influence on industrial organization, markets design and market dynamics.

Frédéric PUJOL joined IDATE DigiWorld in November 1992. As Director of the Wireless Business Unit, he is responsible for coordinating mobile industry forecasting and technical-economic analysis reports. Previously, Frédéric acquired solid experience in mobile network architecture working for the France Telecom Group (Sofrecom, Telesystems). He holds a post-graduate degree in engineering from ISEN (Institut Supérieur d'Electronique du Nord, Lille, 1986), where he majored in Telecommunications, and from CITCOM (Centre d'Ingénierie des Technologies de la Communication, Paris, 1987), where he majored in Network Architecture.

The interviewees

Wassim CHOURBAJI is Vice President and head of Government Affairs for Europe, the EU and MENA. He is the Managing Director of the EU Brussels Office and oversees Qualcomm's public policy, regulatory affairs and senior government relations. Wassim is member of Qualcomm Europe leadership. He leads an EMENA-wide senior team responsible for innovation, technology, intellectual property, telecoms & digital economy, spectrum, standardization, security, data protection and antitrust policy. Wassim is chairman of the Communication Policy Council of TechUK, the policy arm of the UK digital industry. He was previously chairman of the spectrum group at DigitalEurope, the Brussels-based EU industry association, and chairman of the European spectrum group at the GSMA. Prior to joining Qualcomm in 2006, Wassim was the head of spectrum for the France Telecom Group, overseeing the group's fixed, mobile and satellite spectrum strategy across its operating companies. He was also designated by European administrations as lead coordinator on 4G spectrum for Europe at the ITU World Radio Conference. Previously, he served as regulatory manager for SkyBridge, Alcatel Space global Internet satellite project. He started his career as a spectrum engineer at French mobile operator Bouygues Telecom. Wassim holds a master's degree in wireless communications and is a graduate engineer from Supelec France.
Twitter @WassimChourbaji

Martin FRANSMAN is Professor of Economics in the School of Economics at the University of Edinburgh. He is the author of numerous books and articles including The New ICT Ecosystem: Implications for Policy and Regulation (Cambridge University Press) which won the Joseph Schumpeter Prize.

Philippe LUCAS is Senior Vice President, Standardisation & Ecosystems Development at Orange. Philippe holds a Master of Science in digital signal processing from the Polytechnical Engineering School of Grenoble. Philippe holds the challenging task of ensuring the standardisations work carried out with industry bodies is accurately deployed and executed throughout the Group's territories', and aligned to the each market's commercial strategy, marketing and technical development. Philippe is a member of the Products & Services Management Committee of the GSM Association, chair of the Standardisation & Innovation Committee of the French Federation of Telecommunication, member of the Board of the French Association of Standardisation (AFNOR), has been Vice Chair the Board of the European Telecommunication Standard Institute and has been a founder and a Board member of the Open Mobile Alliance. Philippe's expertise working in the telecommunication technologies and standardisation bodies in GSMA / 3GPP / OMA / ETSI spans over 25 years. These responsibilities include the successful application for over 20 patents mainly in the cellular domain, the most recent of which involving innovations developed in the areas of HD Voice services, MMS, RCS services, VoLTE as well as SIM standards.

Contributors to the dossier

Professor Laurent BENZONI holds a Masters in International Finance and a PhD in Industrial Economics. He created the Economics Research Department of Telecom Paris Tech in 1986. Since 1995, he is full Professor of Economics at Sorbonne University where he directs the Master of Economics of Networks. He founded TERA Consultants in 1996, an economic consulting firm, specializing in competition, regulation, costing and development. The firm is a leader in its field and has operated over 50 countries across five continents. Pr Benzoni won the Harvard-expansion Prize, the Industrial Economics Prize (1988), he received the Medal of the Research Institute for Telecommunications (IREST), he is ranked among the world’s leading competition economists by the CGR. He has published numerous articles and books in economic competition, regulation, IT economics and media. He is Member of editorial board of academic reviews. He is member of the Board of the Forum d’Avignon and the scientific board of Competition Workshops of the French Ministry of Economy.

Pascal DUTRU is Attorney at Law (Paris Bar), PhD, graduated from ESSEC Business school and from the College of Europe and has over 20 years’ experience in the ICT industry. After actively contributing to the creation of the Regulatory Authority for Communications and Post in Qatar (Transition Management), and directed its strategy and regulatory policies, he is now General Counsel of the organization. Previously, he was legal director of various companies, led for 12 years the "regulatory and competition" division of a major French service provider and practiced as an attorney at Law. As part of his duties, he is involved in the regulatory field in France, Europe and the Gulf countries and regularly teaches telecom law and various matters related to ICT. He also contributes frequently to international conferences.

Elena LESCOP is the founder of Arx Alliance Corporation. She holds a PhD in economics from TELECOM Business School (Institut Mines-TELECOM). She is a consultant specialised in platform-based ecosystems. Her research work focusses on the impacts of firms on market architecture and dynamics.

Jannick Kirk SØRENSEN, PhD, holds a position as Post Doc. at Center for Communication, Media and Information technologies (CMI) at Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. With background in Media Science and Design Studies, his research interests revolve around the study of creation processes behind invention and development of communication and media technology and -services. Besides his academic career, he has a background as interaction designer and radio feature journalist.

Reza TADAYONI is associate professor at CMI (Center for Communication, Media and Information Technologies) at Aalborg University. He holds a M.Sc.E.E. from DTU (Danish Technical University) specialized in broadband communication, and holds a PhD from DTU in the field of media convergence. His main research focus is on the ICT development and media convergence. Reza Tadayoni has participated in a number of Danish, European and international research projects and he has supervised a number of PhD projects and master and bachelor thesis, and he has published +100 of scientific papers and research reports.


Philippe DENIAU is a Regulatory Affairs Senior Expert within Orange Corporate Regulatory Affairs since 2012, currently in charge of European Roaming Regulation. After 11 years in the IT consultancy business he joined Orange when telecommunications markets opened to competition in Europe. He participated into the mobile and internet business development and occupied several positions favoring innovating communication services and fixed-mobile convergence from its beginning. He has a MSC in Engineering from the "Ecole Spéciale des Travaux Publics" in Paris

Salah Eddine ELAYOUBI received the Ph.D. and habilitation degrees from University Paris 6, France, in 2004 and 2009, respectively. Since 2004, he is working at Orange Labs as a senior researcher. He acts as the technical coordinator of the Celtic+ European project SooGreen on green mobile networks, as a work package leader in 5G PPP METIS-II project and he is also the technical manager of the 5G-PPP project FANTASTIC-5G. His research interests include design and techno-economic analysis of mobile networks.

has been currently economist within Orange Corporate Regulatory Affairs since 2012. She was before Deputy Head of International Affairs Office between 2010 and 2012 and Deputy Head of Tax revenue Office between end of 2008 and 2010 at the Budget Department of the French Ministry of Finances. She had completed a post doctoral position In Orange Labs about mobile payment services in 2008. She holds a PhD in economics from the University of Paris Dauphine.

Marc LEBOURGES is currently is charge of European and Economic issues within Orange Corporate Regulatory Affairs. He also chairs ETNO (European Telecom Network Operators association) Competition Policy Task Force. He has made all his career in Orange, starting as a researcher in operation research and network optimization, before moving to strategic and regulatory analysis at the time of the liberalization of telecommunications markets and of the emergence of Internet. He has also been marketing director of Orange wholesale products before joining his current position. He is a graduate in Telecommunications Engineering from the Ecole National Supérieure des Télécommunications in Paris and holds a PhD in computer science from the Paris University Pierre et Marie Curie.

Carole MANERO, an IDATE DigiWorld Senior Consultant since October 2000, is in charge of monitoring the globe's mobile markets, operator (networks, MVNO) and mobile services development particularly in LTE. She has also become an expert in spectrum management issues. Before coming to IDATE DigiWorld, Carole worked for the COGEMA's North American corporate strategy department, where she was involved in several acquisition operations in the nuclear sector. Ms. Manero holds a MS in marketing (EDHEC business school, Lille, 1991). She also holds a Masters in Human Resources and Corporate Management (ESCP, Paris business school, 1992).

Jan MARKENDAHL is Associate Professor at Communication Systems and Wireless@KTH, Royal Institute of Technology. After more than 20 years in the Industry Jan joined KTH 2003 and worked as a research program manager leading Vinnova projects and tasks in EU FP7 project in the area of Wireless Networks. 2008 he re-started his PhD studies from the 1980's (Jan got a Licentiate degree in Telecommunications Theory 1986). In February 2011 he presented his PhD thesis in a new research area (techno-economics), the title is: "Mobile Network Operators and Cooperation - A techno-economic study of infrastructure sharing and mobile payment services". Jan got the docent degree June 2014 and is currently building up a resaerch team in the area of techno-economic design and analysis of telecom networks and services. From the autumn 2014 Jan is the main advisor for 6 PhD students.

Linda SALAHALDIN is a researcher at Telecom Ecole de Management. She received his MS in mathematics applied to economics and finance and a Ph.D in economics and finance from Paris Dauphine University. Her research topics include real options, investing under uncertainty, decision making and innovation management.




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