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No. 101 - Towards a single digital audiovisual market?

DigiWorld Economic Journal - C&S - 29/03/2016 No. 101 - Towards a single digital audiovisual market?

No. 101 - 1st quarter 2016

In the last decade, we have seen drastic changes in this industry, mainly stemming from technological advances, but also from the process of market liberalization especially in communications network operation. As EU’s Audiovisual Media Services Directive is being revised within the context of the Digital Single Market programme of the Commission, this issue of the Digiworld Economic Journal aims to discuss the main issues and to contribute to the overall discussion.

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Towards a single digital

audiovisual market?

Edited by Sally BROUGHTON MICOVA, Alexandre JOLIN,


by Yves GASSOT, Director of Publication

by the Editors


The European Audiovisual Industry and the Digital Single Market:
Trends, Issues and Policies

Alain BUSSON, Thomas PARIS & Jean Paul SIMON

Public Service Media and the European Internal Market:
Friends or Allies?


Cultural Diversity in the Internet Age:
In Search of New Tools that Work



, EC-DG Connect
Conducted by Sally BROUGHTON MICOVA

Nicolas CURIEN & Nathalie SONNAC
Conducted by Alexandre JOLIN

Conducted by Sally BROUGHTON MICOVA

Extra papers

Out of the Blue: the Rise of CDN Networks
Pierre-Jean BENGHOZI & Jean-Paul SIMON


Regulation and Competition
Contribution on the Public Consultation on Directive 2010/13/Eu on Audiovisual Media Services (AVMSD)
TV in the Digital Single Market
Impact of Current Regulatory Changes on the Audiovisual Value Chain
Florence LE BORGNE

Firms and Markets
• Audiovisual Industry Going Global
Alexandre JOLIN

Book Review

Michael WOLFF, Television Is the New Television: The Unexpected Triumph of Old Media In the Digital Age

Contributor biographies     

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Our Dossiers


Towards a single digital

audiovisual market?

The European Audiovisual Industry and the Digital Single Market:
Trends, Issues and Policies

Alain BUSSON, Thomas PARIS and Jean-Paul SIMON
Key words: audiovisual regulatory framework, Digital Single Market, audiovisual industry, Europe, convergence, OTT.

New players emerge in the audiovisual industry and offer unprecedented solutions for aggregating and distributing content. New entrants, especially social networks, have been the engines of these changes toward multitasking, multi-screening behaviours. The way of accessing and interacting with content has changed. Over the last three decades, the European Commission has been watching carefully the evolution of the media and content industries with the goal to foster growth and innovation of digital content services in the European Union, while at the same time protecting consumers in a harmonised fashion.The paper contrasts the global trends of the market, the features of the dual EU audiovisual markets with some of the recent proposals of the European Commission in the backdrop of its numerous initiatives of the last decades.

Public Service Media and the European Internal Market: Friends or Allies?
Key words: public service media, Audiovisual Media Services directive, State aid, European Commission, media policy.

Especially in Western and Northern Europe public broadcasters play an important cultural, but also economic role reaching a vast majority of the population and in so doing co-shaping national identities, contributing to informed citizenship and, at the same time, competing for the scarce time of media users. As public service media is a part of Member States' cultural policy toolkits, the competencies of the European Commission in this domain are limited to internal market and competition policies. Looking at public service media from this perspective is at times conflictuous since the presence of public broadcasters might be seen as an anomaly to a free and competitive internal market. This article analyzes how the European Commission deals with public service media in its internal market and competition policies. Its main underlying question is whether the European Commission has been successful in taking into account both economic and cultural aspects relevant to media policy or whether one of these has been superior to the other. Assuming the latter is indeed the case, the axis of the analysis is not only on uncovering friction between diverging policy goals, but equally on suggesting where space for a more balanced approach, for example, in light of the review of the Audiovisual Media Services directive, can be found. Findings are based on a qualitative document analysis. The main argument is that whereas the European Commission used to be somewhat hostile towards public service media as a market distortion, public broadcasters might turn out to be important in terms of realizing both the economic and cultural aspects of European integration. A re-balancing of policies through, for example, the inclusion of public service media's special status in the European Union in the renewed Audiovisual Media Services directive is therefore advisable.

Cultural Diversity in the Internet Age: In Search of New Tools that Work

Key words: cultural diversity, exposure diversity, EU media law and policy, Audiovisual Media Service directive, digital media, internet, intermediaries.

The article considers the key media policy objective of enhancing cultural diversity and explores one of the possible paths towards it in the digital media space – namely, by addressing the new intermediaries that have an increasingly critical role in contemporary media experiences. It sketches some particular problems that policymakers need to take into account, such as tailored content consumption, as well as some ways to solve them, such as through content curation in the public interest.

Extra Paper

Out of the Blue: The Rise of CDN Networks

Pierre-Jean BENGHOZI and Jean-Paul SIMON
Key words: content delivery networks, interconnection, digital economy, ICT ecosystem and value chains, online TV business models, video distribution and consumption.

Despite their importance in the global organization and economy of internet networks, content delivery networks (CDNs) remain quite unfamiliar outside professional circles. However, they have a key role for a smooth functioning of the distribution of digital contents. This paper assesses the importance of these new powerful economic actors of the internet, identify the technical and economic integration dynamics that underlie their development, and clarify some of the characteristics of their business models with a focus on interconnection.

The guest editors

Sally BROUGHTON MICOVA (Dr) is a Lecturer in Communications Policy and Politics at the University of East Anglia and member of its Centre for Competition Policy. She is also Visiting Fellow at the London School of Economics and Political Science, where she was previously Deputy Director of the LSE Media Policy Project and an LSE Fellow in Media Governance and Policy. Her research focuses on European media policy, particular in relation to audiovisual media services. Before entering academia she spent over a decade in international organisations, and continues to serve as an occasional expert for the Council of Europe, EU institutions, and the OSCE.

Alexandre JOLIN joined IDATE in April 2011 and acts as a Senior Consultant in the "TV and Digital Content" Business Unit. His prime areas of focus are traditional TV markets and innovative video services, such as connected TV, online video, VoD and Catch-up TV. He is also in charge of the "Digital Content Economy" practice, covering the fields of book editing, recorded music and video editing. Alexandre holds a Ph.D. in Information and Communication Sciences from the University of Paris Sorbonne, a Master 2 degree in Economics, Sociology and New Technologies in the Media, and a Bachelor's Degree in English (Language, Literature and Civilizations).

Jan LOISEN is assistant professor at the communication sciences department of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB/ Free University of Brussels) and senior researcher in the policy unit of iMinds-SMIT (Studies on Media, Information and Telecommunication). His main expertise is in the field of international and European media policy. He has published in the field of media and cultural policy as negotiated in the WTO, within UNESCO's Cultural Diversity Convention, in the European Union, and in bilateral trade agreements. In 2014, he co-edited The Palgrave Handbook of European Media Policy (2014, with K. DONDERS & C. PAUWELS). Since 2016 he is also a member of the European Expert Network on Culture and Audiovisual (EENCA).

Thomas PARIS, Ph.D. from Ecole polytechnique (France), is researcher at CNRS (GREG HEC), affiliate professor and scientific director for the Media, Art, Creation master program at HEC Paris. Expert in creative industries, he carries research both on the creation management and on the economical and regulatory points of view. In the audiovisual industry, he recently wrote two reports for the EC (New Approaches for Greater Diversity of Cinema in Europe? Analyses ofExperiments Launched in the Context of the Preparatory Action "Circulation of European Films in the Digital Era", European Parliament/European Commission, May 2014 and June 2015).

The interviewees

Lorena BOIX ALONSO is the Head of Unit for Converging Media and Content Unit, Directorate General for Communications Networks Content and Technology since July 2012. Formerly, she was Deputy Head of Cabinet of Vice President Neelie Kroes, European Commissioner for the Digital Agenda. During Ms Kroes' mandate as Commissioner for Competition, Lorena Boix Alonso commenced in October 2004 as a member of her Cabinet and became Deputy Head of Cabinet in May 2008. She holds a Master of Laws, with a focus on Antitrust Law and Intellectual Property, from the Harvard Law School. She graduated in Law from the University of Valencia (Spain) and then obtained a Licence Spéciale en Droit Européen from the Université Libre de Bruxelles. She joined the European Commission Directorate-General for Competition in 2003. Prior to that, she has worked for Judge Rafael García Valdecasas, at the European Court of Justice, as well as Deputy Director and Legal Coordinator of the IPR-Helpdesk Project and in private practice in Brussels.

Nicolas CURIEN, a member of Corps des Mines, sits at the board of the French Regulatory Body for Radio and Television (CSA), since 2015. He also is Emeritus professor at Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, where he held the chair "Telecommunications Economics and Policy" from 1992 to 2011, before being Commissioner in the French Regulatory Body for Telecommunications and Post from 2005 to 2011. An expert in digital economics, he taught at École Polytechnique from 1985 to 2007 and is a founding member of the French National Academy of Engineering.

Adam MINNS is Executive Director of the Commercial Broadcasters Association (COBA), the trade association for UK multichannel broadcasters and on-demand services. He leads COBA's work on a range of UK and European legislative and regulatory matters, reporting to COBA's board. He joined from Pact, the trade association for UK independent production companies, where he was Director of Policy and played a key role in Pact's work on the Terms of Trade and a range of other UK and European issues. Prior to Pact, Adam was UK film editor of Screen International, the film business publication, covering the British and European film industries. He has written for the Financial Times and the Independent on Sunday.

Nathalie SONNAC (Doctor of Economics) chaired the Information and Communication Department of Paris 2 from 2009 to 2015 and was in charge of the professional Master 2 "Media & Public". As a media economy expert, culture and digital technology, she is also the author of numerous scientific books and articles in this field. More specifically she analyses the issues of competition and regulation in the digital age, market interaction, new business models, and monetization of digital content. She was appointed Commissioner at the Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel by the President of the French National Assembly on January 5, 2015 for a six-year mandate.

Contributors to the dossier

Mira BURRI is a senior fellow and a lecturer at the University of Bern. She leads a project on digital technologies and trade governance and teaches courses in international media, intellectual property and trade law. Mira has published extensively in the fields of EU and international media and internet law and policy.
She is the co-editor of the publications Free Trade versus Cultural Diversity (Schulthess, 2004), Digital Rights Management: The End of Collecting Societies? (Staempfli et al., 2005); Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expressions in a Digital Environment (Edward Elgar, 2008); Governance of Digital Game Environments and Cultural Diversity (Edward Elgar, 2010) and Trade Governance in the Digital Age (Cambridge University Press, 2012). She recently published Public Service Broadcasting 3.0: Legal Design for the Digital Present (Routledge, 2015).
Mira's publications are available at: http://ssrn.com/author=483457

Alain BUSSON, Ph.D. in economics, worked for 20 years for France Telecom/Orange (department of Innovation - department of business policy and strategy). He is now emeritus affiliate professor at HEC-Paris where he teaches economics and strategy in a cursus called "Media, Arts and Creation". He is interested in management of innovation and information and communication technologies (ICT). He has written several books and articles on the digital revolution that impacts the creative industries.

Karen DONDERS (Prof. Dr) lectures on European media markets, media policy and policy analysis at the Vrije Universiteit Brussels. She is a senior researcher at iMinds-SMIT where she heads the Policy Research Unit, consisting of approx. 15 junior and senior researchers working on media and communication policy. Karen specializes in public service media, European State aid law, private television, and methods of policy analysis.

Jean-Paul SIMON runs his consulting firm specialised in media/telecom law regulation and strategy. He held various positions in the telecom industry, worked as a senior scientist at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), European Commission, Directorate-General JRC. He holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy and is a graduate (MBA) from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales. He has written several books and articles on communications and public policy. He is a frequent speaker on telecommunications and media in Asia, Europe and the USA.

Extra paper

Pierre-Jean BENGHOZI is Commissioner at the French Electronic Communications and Postal Regulatory Authority (ARCEP). He has a scientific education in engineering from the the Ecole Polytechnique (Paris), and he is graduated in Management studies (Ph.D.) and Economic (Priv.- Doz). He is Research Director at the French National Centre for Scientific Resarch (CNRS) and professor at the École Polytechnique. Pierre-Jean Benghozi developed, since the early eighties, pioneering research unit and programs on Information Technology, Telecommunications, Media and Culture.


was researcher and lecturer in the University of Liège, Bruxelles and Paris-Dauphine, project officer at the European Institute for the Media (1986-1987), Head of Department at IDATE (1989-1993) and at the European Audiovisual Observatory (1993-2015).

Florence LE BORGNE-BACHSCHMIDT is Director of Studies at IDATE. She is head of TV & Digital Content Practice. Florence's prime area of focus is the digitalization process in the TV and video industry dealing with both the economic and strategic aspects of those sectors, at a macro and microeconomic level. She works for private companies, French and foreign regulatory authorities and public bodies, ministries (Industry, Culture), the European Commission and French regional authorities. Florence is also a lecturer at the University of Montpellier I since 2010 where she teaches audiovisual economy. Ms. Le Borgne is a graduate of the Lille school of management EDHEC (Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales).

Book review

Rémy LE CHAMPION is associate professor at Institut français de presse at Université Panthéon-Assas Paris 2. He co-heads the School of Journalism at IFP. He is a member of CARISM (Centre d'Analyse et de Recherche Interdisciplinaire sur les Médias), a research center at the université Panthéon-Assas Paris 2. His research and publications focus on media economics, business models of media firms, market-driven journalism.




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