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No. 86 - Development of ICT in Africa

DigiWorld Economic Journal - C&S - 30/06/2012 No. 86 - Development of ICT in Africa

2nd quarter 2012

While the very rapid, although uneven, expansion of mobile telecommunication networks on the African continent is supporting a variety of services including voice, text messaging and Internet access, there is great variety in market structures, regulatory arrangements, and the way applications and services are being rolled out. This special issue is concerned with the way these technologies are contributing to economic and social development and with the barriers that countries in the region face as they seek to reap the benefits of increasing connectivity for their business communities, entrepreneurs and citizens. The papers analyse the challenges and barriers, as well as the opportunities, in the wake of the spread of mobile networks in the region based on experiences at the country level using aggregate data and at the within country level using qualitative data. Several papers show how infrastructure investment and regulation intersect with opportunities provided by voice services and data applications once networks are extended and offer affordable connectivity.

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Development of ICT in Africa

Eds: Laurent GILLE, Anders HENTEN, Robin MANSELL & Didier

By the Editors

General Overview of Telecom African Markets


The Economic Impact of Telecommunications in Senegal

Network Sharing: a Hot Topic for Operators and Regulators
in Sub-Saharan Africa


Comparing the Determinants of Internet and Cell Phone Use in
Africa: Evidence from Gabon

Thierry PENARD, Nicolas POUSSING, Gabriel ZOMO YEBE & Philémon NSI ELLA 

Social Capital and the Use of ICTs by Small-Scale
Entrepreneurs in Soweto, South Africa


The Adoption of 'Transformational Mobile Banking' by the
Unbanked: An Exploratory Field Study


Hitting or Missing African UAS objectives?
An Evaluation of Universal Access and Service (UAS)
Policy Guidelines for Developing Countries
Brandie L. MARTIN


Osei DARKWA, Rector of the Ghana telecom University College
Conducted by Anders HENTEN

Christian de FARIA, Group Chief Commercial Officer,
MTN Group, South Africa

Conducted by Didier POUILLOT

Other Papers

Wholesale Pricing, NGA Take-Up and Competition
Steffen HOERNIG, Stephan JAY, Werner NEU,

Impact Study of the Arrival of a New Mobile Phone Operator in Haiti
Jean-Michel HUET, Isabelle VIENNOIS, Pierre LABARTHE & Anas EL BARKANI


Firms and Markets
- The ICT Landscape in BRICS Countries: South Africa
Alison GILLWALD & Jean-Paul SIMON

Technical Innovations
- Apps and the Mobile Internet
The battle of the platforms: both native and Web apps



Development of ICT in Africa

The Economic Impact of Telecommunications in Senegal

Key words: broadband, economy, Senegal, ICT

While the economic impact of telecommunications has attracted the focus of attention of research in the past, the area of sub-Saharan Africa has only recently become the subject of inquiry. Furthermore, the study of the region represents a case study by itself. Socio-economic parameters like economic stability and growth, compulsory education, access to basic services, rule of law and control of corruption shape an unpredictable environment and certainly affect the impact that wireless and broadband may have. Additionally, embryonic fixed line networks, limited banking facilities and patchy transport links may have an accentuated impact on the development and use of digital networks. In this paper a unique country-level sample was assembled for Senegal for the period 2004-2011 in order to measure the effect of wireless and broadband on the economic growth of the country. Our preliminary results suggest that mobile phones have a measurable impact on economic growth and lie within the estimates of previous work on a much larger scale. On the other hand, the economic effect of broadband cannot be measured yet because the technology is at its very early stages of adoption. However, the rapid growth of third generation services during 2011 suggests a transformation in this type of network access, which might result in important economic effects in the future.

Network Sharing: a Hot Topic for Operators
and Regulators in Sub-Saharan Africa
Key words: infrastructures, institutions, network sharing, regulation, sub-Saharan Africa, telecommunications.

Network coverage, cost reduction and improvements in financial and operational performance are some of the issues telecom operators are currently facing in sub-Saharan Africa. Network sharing progressively has become a hot topic for operators and for regulators. The first part explains network sharing approaches in developing countries. This is followed by an assessment of the risks and benefits of sharing for operators and countries, and then by a discussion of the role of policies and regulations regarding network sharing based on case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroun and Kenya. This analysis shows that network sharing can have important economic implications for operators, countries and for end users, provided that institutions define a relevant regulatory framework and provide clear guidelines.

Comparing the Determinants of Internet and Cell Phone Use in Africa: Evidence from Gabon
Thierry PENARD, Nicolas POUSSING, Gabriel ZOMO YEBE & Philémon NSI ELLA
Key words: Internet use, cell phone use, IT diffusion, digital divide, Africa.

Within developed countries, the penetration of cell phones and the Internet has risen in tandem and the point of market saturation has nearly been reached in both markets. In contrast, the African continent has been characterized by more uneven progress, with the penetration of cell phones (41% in 2010) considerably outpacing the penetration of the Internet (9.6%). The question is then raised as to whether cell phone and Internet adoption processes in Africa are different as compared to other regions. To address this question, we compare the determinants and hindrances of both Internet and cell phone use in Gabon, using household survey data. Our econometric results show that the primary factors stimulating Internet use consist of a high level of education and computer skills. As regards cell phone use, the main obstacles are economic. Finally, an individual's age has a positive impact on cell phone use and a negative impact on Internet use. The differences identified in both penetration and user profiles between Internet and cell phone service should motivate African governments to develop digital policies more heavily focused on a wider dissemination of cell phones in order to make innovative services and applications (e.g. in the field of health or education) available to as broad a population as possible.

Social Capital and the Use of ICTs by Small-Scale Entrepreneurs in Soweto, South Africa
Key words: social capital, South Africa, Soweto, mobile phones, strategies.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a key role in starting and operating small-scale businesses. In Soweto, South Africa, mobile phones have sparked the creation of new business models and strategies among entrepreneurs. Their use is shown to help maintain relationships and build trust between businesses and clients, thus contributing to individuals' social capital.

The adoption of "Transformational Mobile Banking" by the Unbanked: An Exploratory Field Study
Key words: unbanked, m-banking services, mobile money, TAM, adoption, consumer behavior.

Whereas the number of people using mobile phones grows tremendously across the developing world, the number of people having a bank account is still very low. A recent report shows that over half the population of the world is unbanked, a majority of which are rural dwellers in the developing world. The primary aim of this exploratory study is to examine whether or not m-banking services can be transformational. During the study, an extensive review of the literature on the unbanked and the adoption of m-banking services was conducted. This was followed by a focus group discussion which was conducted among the unbanked rural dwellers in Ghana. The current study concludes that the transformational potential of m-banking could be realised if beyond access, the other barriers to having a bank account, which include affordability, trust, convenience and documentation are addressed effectively in its deployment.

Hitting or Missing African UAS Objectives? - An Evaluation of Universal Access and Service (UAS) Policy Guidelines for Developing Countries
Brandie L. MARTIN
Key words: InfoDev/ITU ICT Regulation Toolkit, Mobile broadband, Mobile telecommunications, Universal access and service, Uganda, sub-Saharan Africa.

Most African countries have historically lagged in telecommunications development. Recent modifications to universal access and service (UAS) policies have helped develop an environment capable of unprecedented mobile telecommunications growth. The World Bank Information for Development Program (InfoDev) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) developed "The ICT Regulation Toolkit" (ICTRT) to serve as a "best practice" guide for ICT policymakers in developing countries. The ICTRT recommends that developing countries include roll-out obligations in telecommunications licenses, develop a UAS fund to manage subsidies needed for investment, develop commercial rather than UAS policy solutions, take advantage of new technological efficiencies to achieve UAS objectives, include social factors in the design of UAS policies, and align UAS objectives with national social programs to foster co-achievement of long-term development goals. By conducting a critical analysis of Uganda's adoption of the ICTRT "best practice" guidelines, this paper contextualizes the impacts of policy transfer. The paper concludes with supply and demand-side UAS objectives that should be incorporated into the ICTRT.

The Editors

Laurent GILLE teaches economics at Télécom ParisTech, an ICT engineering school in Paris – France. Graduated from ENSAE (Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Economique), Ph.D. in management, he worked first in the transportation sector (Ministry and Air France) before serving as a consultant in economics and strategy for telecommunications for 20 years (IDATE, Sirius Bipe). His research interests include the economic regulation of telecommunications networks, especially in developing countries, and innovative business models in the digital economy. Responsible for a training curriculum in regulation in Africa, he advises many African regulators.

Anders HENTEN is professor at the center for Communication, Media and Information technologies (CMI) at the Department of Development and Planning at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. He is a graduate in communications and international development studies from Roskilde University in Denmark (1989) and holds a Ph.D. from the Technical University of Denmark (1995). His main areas of research are Communications policy and regulation, ICT-based business models, Information and knowledge society developments, Information and communication technology innovation, Service innovation and internationalisation and Socio-economic implications of information and communication technologies. Anders Henten has worked professionally in the area of communications economy and policy for more than 20 years. He has participated in numerous research projects financed e.g. by the European Community, the Nordic Council of Ministers, Danish Research Councils and Ministries, and in consultancies, financed by World Bank, UNCTAD, ITU, Danish Ministries, etc.

Robin MANSELL is Professor of New Media and the Internet in the Department of Media and Communications, London School of Economics and Political Science. She is past President of the International Association for Media and Communication Research and former Head of Department. She is internationally known for her work on the social, economic, and political issues arising from new information and communication technologies. She is a leading contributor to policy debates on the potential of and risks associated with the information society. Her most recent book is Imagining the Internet: Communication, Innovation and Governance, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Didier POUILLOT is Director of Studies and Head of Telecom Strategy Business Unit at IDATE. He has been with IDATE since April 1986, and worked as the Head of the Industrial Analysis Department, before taking charge of the Telecom Economics and Business Modelling Practice. A specialist in telcos and telecom services markets, he contributes to a variety of research and study assignments on the sector's regulatory, technological and industrial issues (ultra-broadband outlook, telecommunications investments and employment, European industry's competitiveness, …). Didier is also the editor-in-chief of the annual DigiWorld Yearbook on the stakes and challenges of the digital economy. Before joining IDATE, Didier worked as a consultant for Paris firm, B.I.P.E. He is a graduate from the ESSEC business school in Paris, France (1982).


The interviewees

Osei Kofi DARKWA was appointed first Principal of Ghana Telecom University College (GTUC) on November 16, 2004. He assumed this leadership position after more than two decades of higher education, administrative, consultative and managerial experience in Norway, the United States, and his home country, Ghana. Dr. Darkwa is an accomplished leader, an effective speaker, a writer par excellence, a true visionary and a holder of an impressive record of academic and research accomplishment. Notably he has written well over 120 articles on various ICT topics which have been published in the Ghanaian Times between May, 2006 and July, 2008. Dr Darkwa has published numerous papers and articles on the Internet and in peer-reviewed journals on ICT development in Africa. He has written on topics such as distance education, telematics, multipurpose community telecenters, and virtual institution building. He has participated in various television and radio programmes and delivered lectures on ICT that cut across various topics across the country and beyond. Dr Darkwa has played a leadership and pioneering role in the community informatics movement as well as a key role in ICT capacity building, education and training. He has membership with key ICT-oriented organization.

Cristian de FARIA (Degree in Finance Administration - CA) is Group Chief Commercial Officer at MTN Group. He is a member of the MTN Group executive and steering committee. Furthermore, he is a director on the boards of the MTN Group's West and Central Africa, Southern and East Africa operations, MTN Dubai. Prior to joining MTN Group in 2006, Christian was CEO of PT Excelcomindo Pratama, known as XL, the second largest mobile operator in Indonesia. Before joining XL, he was the CEO of Telekom Malaysia International now known as Axiata, responsible for international strategy and involved in the rapid growth of investments in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Thailand and Indonesia. From June 2006 until May 2010, he was the Vice President for West and Central Africa, responsible for 9 of the 21 countries where MTN has a presence, covering an area from the Republic of Congo till Guinea Bissau. This region represents an important part of MTN's business overall. Since July 2011 he is responsible for all customer facing activities from Innovation, Products and Services, Marketing, CRM, Sales and distribution at Group Level.

The Authors

ANDREW CARLSON is a faculty member in the department of Communication, Writing and the Arts at Metropolitan State University in Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States, where he teaches courses in applied communication research, social media, and communication for development. He has worked and conducted research in South Africa, Tanzania, Liberia, Ghana, Timor Leste, and Kenya, and presently facilitates and maintains online courses in development communication for UNICEF and C-Change.

Anas EL BARKANI is an Analyst at BearingPoint Paris Office. He works on strategic, operational and technological issues for Telecom, Energy and Utilities companies. He is a graduate of Mines ParisTech and Polytechnic University of Madrid.

Alison GILLWALD is Director of Research ICT Africa, an 18 African country ICT policy and regulatory research network based in Cape Town, South Africa. She is adjunct professor at the University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business, Management of Infrastructure Reform and Regulation programme where she convenes an ICT policy and regulatory training programme. Prior to this she was Associate Professor at the Witwatersrand University Graduate School of Public and Development Management, where she founded the Learning Information Networking and Knowledge (LINK) Centre with the purposes of fast tracking ICT policy and regulatory training in Southern Africa. Before joining Wits she served on the founding Council of the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA). Prior to that she was responsible for establishing the Independent Broadcasting Authority's Policy Department in 1995. She has served on several public boards and advisory bodies including chairing the National Digital Broadcasting Advisory Body, serving on the board of the public broadcaster, the South African Broadcasting Corporation. She has a doctorate from the University of the Witwatersrand, and a Master degree from the University of Natal. She is founding editor of the Southern African Journal of Information and Communication and is published in the areas of telecommunications and broadcasting policy and regulation, gender and politics more broadly.

Steffen HOERNIG is an Associate Professor at the Nova School of Business and Economics at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. He obtained a degree in Management at the Universität Bielefeld in Germany; a Master in Applied Mathematical Sciences at the University of Georgia, Athens, USA; and a Ph.D. degree in Economics at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. His research and publication area is Industrial Organization, with particular emphasis on telecommunications economics. Recently he has concentrated on issues related to competition between mobile networks. He is an Associate Editor of Information Economics & Policy. He has been a consultant for ICP-ANACOM in Portugal and various international companies on matters including the EU Framework for Telecommunications Regulation and issues in network competition. He was a jury member for the rural next-generation broadband competition in Portugal.


Jean-Michel HUET is an Associate Partner at BearingPoint Paris Office. He works on different issues on marketing and international development for telecom, media and utilities companies. He has published numerous articles and points of view on entry strategies, management and convergence, including books (Les tendances du management, Pearson, 2007, Le meilleur de la stratégie et du management, Village Mondial, 2009, What if telecoms were the key of the 3rd industrial revolution?, Pearson, 2010) Prior joining BearingPoint, Jean-Michel was product manager at France Télécom Mobiles and consultant for PwC Consulting and IBM BCS. He is a graduate of Reims Management School and Sciences Po Paris.

Stephan JAY is Senior Consultant within WIK-Consult's Cost Modelling and Internet Economics division focusing on analysis of Next Generation (Access) Networks from strategic, economic, technical, competition policy and regulatory perspectives. Between 2003 and 2007 he held various positions at bmp Telecommunications Consultants, a strategy consulting group operating in international broadband markets. He has 10 years of project experience regarding analysis of business models, cost models and strategy development in the context of international broadband markets for a broad variety of industry stakeholders. Stephan Jay studied business administration at universities of Duisburg (Germany) and Cardiff (UK) graduating with the degree Diplom Kaufmann. He joined WIK in 2007.


Raul KATZ is Adjunct Professor in the Division of Finance and Economics at Columbia Business School and Director of Business Policy Research at the Columbia Institute for Tele-Information. He is also President of Telecom Advisory Services LLC. He was a Lead Partner and member of the Leadership Team at Booz Allen & Hamilton, where he worked for twenty years. He holds a Ph.D. in Management Science and Political Science and an MS in Communications Technology and Policy from M.I.T., as well as a Licence and Maitrise in Communications Sciences from the University of Paris, and a Maitrise in Political Sciences from the University of Paris-Sorbonne

Pantelis KOUTROUMPIS is Research Fellow at the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Group at Imperial College Business School and Fellow at the Columbia Institute of Tele-Information. He holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Imperial College London and an M.Phil in Technology Policy from Cambridge University. He is a chartered Electrical and Computer Engineer from the National Technical University of Athens.   


Pierre LABARTHE is a Manager at BearingPoint Paris Office. He works on strategic, financial and organizational issues in Telecom, Energy and Utilities sector. He conducted several projects of economic analysis and reorganization in emerging countries. He is a graduate of Paris Dauphine University.

Brandie MARTIN is currently a doctoral fellow and graduate assistant for the Institute for Information Policy in the College of Communications at The Pennsylvania State University. Her research focuses on the role of information and communication technologies in global development, with particular emphasis on universal access and service policy issues. In 2009, she conducted research in rural Uganda on the use of mobile phones to aid agricultural productivity. Brandie has published articles on Information Technologies & International Development and Telematics and Informatics. Brandie graduated from Iowa State University in 2010 with an MS in Journalism and Mass Communication with a minor in Technology and Social Change.

Soichi NAKAJIMA is a senior consultant at IDATE. His main area of endeavour is the mobile communications market, covering services such as mobile broadband, communication and ubiquitous services, as well as operator strategies such as modelling, pricing and branding. Whilst being responsible in these areas, Soichi also works on telecoms and ICT strategies all across the globe. Before coming to IDATE, Soichi worked for NTT DOCOMO, Japan's largest mobile network operator by subscriber numbers. He played a leading role in the strategic planning of the roll-out of Japan's first 3G M2M data-only tariffs, and prior to this he worked on the analysis and review of potential new multimedia services for the company. Soichi holds a Bachelors degree in mathematics, from the University of Nottingham in the UK.


Werner NEU has more than 25 years of experience in research and consultancy covering all areas of telecommunications economics and regulation. Until 2001 he was for more than a decade standing adviser to the German Government. He continues to advise regulatory authorities and companies around the world on regulatory issues of telecommunications markets. His work has concerned the institutional design of regulatory authorities, designing primary and secondary legislation for telecommunications, licensing, efficient allocation of frequency and numbering resources and, in particular more recently, interconnection, optimal tariff design, tariff regulation, as well as the determination of the costs of telecommunications services. He was employed with WIK from 1985 to 2001. From 1995 to 2001 he was the managing director of the Institute. He now works for WIK on a project basis. Previous positions include research positions at Bonn University and with the German Monopolies Commission. Werner Neu has a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of California at Berkeley.



Karl-Heinz NEUMANN is a graduate of the University of Bonn with a Ph.D. in Economics, he rejoined WIK in April 2001 as General Manager and Director of WIK GmbH and WIK-Consult GmbH, a position he had previously held until 1995. From 1995 to 2001 he worked for RWE Telliance AG as Executive Director for strategy, regulation and national projects. In the last two years he was Member of the Management Board of the Company. In this position he also acted as Member of the Board and as Member of the Supervisory Board of several national and international telecommunications companies. Besides his telecommunications industry experience, Karl-Heinz Neumann has a broad experience in the consultancy of regulatory authorities, governments and telecommunications companies. He acted as a member of many expert and advisory commissions, related to German telecommunication authorities. Furthermore, Dr. Neumann has provided expert opinions on various regulatory cases among others in Germany, Switzerland and the Federal Court of Justice in Australia.


Philemon NSI ELLA is Doctor of Economics and researcher at Omar Bongo University of Libreville (Gabon). He is also researcher at International Development Research and Management Organizations Centre (CERDIMO). His Ph.D., entitled "Adoption, diffusion and use of ICT in Gabon", was supervised by professors Thierry Pénard and Gabriel Zomo Yebe.

Thierry PÉNARD is professor of Economics at the University of Rennes 1 and research fellow at CREM (Center for Research in Economics and Management) and Marsouin. He is also associate fellow at CEPS-INSTEAD (Luxembourg). His main fields of interest are Internet economics (e-business, Internet use, socio-economic impact of ICT), network economics and industrial organization (antitrust policy, strategic behavior, franchising).

Thomas PLÜCKEBAUM joined WIK in August 2007 as senior consultant and leads the department of Cost Modelling and Internet Economics. Between 1994 and 2007 he held leading positions at several competitive operators in Germany and was CEO of ISIS Multimedia Net, Germanys first regional operator sited in Duesseldorf (founded in 1994). Dr. Thomas Plueckebaum studied Electrical Engineering and Economic Engineering at the RWTH Aachen. In 1982 he joined the Institute for Electro Technology and Data Processing Systems as an Assistant Professor and finished his studies with a doctorate in Electrical Engineering. His research work concentrated on parallel computing architectures and communication protocols. He has published a major number of articles and speeches and has written a variety of studies and comments on regulatory developments in the past decades in Germany and the EU for the German industry association Telecom e.V., where he is member of the board.


Nicolas POUSSING is Research Fellow at CEPS/INSTEAD, a public research institution located in Luxembourg. He received a Ph.D. in Economics from University Nancy 2. His research interests are broadly concerned with analyzing Internet adoption and Internet impact on social capital and happiness. He also analyses corporate social responsibility, in particular the link between CSR and innovation.

Aude SCHOENTGEN is a Ph.D. student at Télécom ParisTech, France. Her research interests lie in the field of telecom investments in emerging countries. Prior to joining the Télécom ParisTech doctoral programme, Aude worked for six years on international projects at France Télécom Group's headquarters in Paris, in the field of operational and financial performance improvement. She holds a Master of Science in management from Skema Business School, Lille, France, and a Master of Philosophy in economics from Sciences Po Paris.

Jean-Paul SIMON is founder and director of JPS Public Policy Consulting, a consulting firm specialised in media/ telecom law regulation and strategy, January 2007-December 2009 and since January 2012. He has been Senior scientist at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), European Commission, Directorate-General JRC, (Sevilla, Spain) January 2010-January 2012. He works on the economic assessment of the IT sector, the IT sector in BRICs countries and the media and content industries. Prior to that he held different positions in the industry. He holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy (1975) and is a graduate from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales (HEC) (econometrics) 1971. He has written several books and articles on communications and public policy. He is a frequent speaker on telecommunications and media in Asia, Europe and the USA. He is the co-editor (with Giuditta de PRATO and Daniel NEPELSKI) of the forthcoming book: Dancing with tigers. IT in Asia, from Chandos.

Peter TOBBIN is a Lecturer and the Director of the Centre for IT Professional Development in Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA). He is Ph.D. Fellow at the centre for Communication, Media and Information technologies (CMI) at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. He is a graduate of Information Studies (Information Security) from University of Westminster, UK. His main research interests include adoption/diffusion and use of technology, consumer behavior analysis, domestication of telecommunication and mobile data services. Peter Tobbin has professionally worked as an e-Government consultant for a number of World Bank projects in Ghana and Liberia. Prior to that, he was engaged in information security related projects in the United Kingdom.

Isabelle VIENNOIS is a Senior manager at BearingPoint Paris Office. She works on strategic, financial and marketing issues in Telecom, Energy and utilities sector. She conducted several projects in emerging countries, on innovation, smart cities and economic development. She is a graduate of Sciences Po Paris.

Ingo VOGELSANG is a Professor of Economics at Boston University. He has a Dr.rer.pol. from the University of Heidelberg, Germany, and taught Economics at the University of Bonn before joining Boston University as an Associate Professor in 1981. Before settling on an academic career, he was a Managing Limited Partner in Vogelsang & Schönfeld, Hamburg, a company engaged in international coal and oil trade (1968-1975). His publications include sixteen books and many articles in the areas of public utility regulation and deregulation and of privatization of public enterprises. His main interests concentrate on pricing and competition issues of network industries. He is an Associate Editor of Information Economics and Policy and on the Editorial Board of, among others, The Journal of Regulatory Economics, the Review of Network Economics, and International Economics and Economic Policy. He has been a consultant, among others, to the World Bank, the European Commission, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the German Telecommunications Regulator (BNetzA), the RAND Corporation, and MIT


Gabriel ZOMO YEBE is Professor of Economics at Omar Bongo University of Libreville (Gabon). He is also researcher at International Development Research and Management Organizations Centre (CERDIMO). His research interests include Development Economics, forest Management and the economics of ICT.




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